Malacca or Melaka is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south. The capital is Malacca Town. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.
Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay Sultanates, the monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor (Tuan Yang Terutama, TYT), rather than a Sultan, acts as the head of state now.
The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,950-km2, or 0.5 percent of the whole area of Malaysia. The state is divided into 3 districts:
Central Melaka (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²),
Alor Gajah (660 km²),
Jasin (676 km²)
Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the West coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca.
The state capital Malacca Town is strategically located between the two national capitals (of Malaysia and Singapore, respectively) and connected with excellent roads and highways. Malacca still harbors no train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. However, a domestic airport terminal rests in Batu Berendam.
The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and the exclave Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca.
Malacca has a population of 759,000 as of 2007, being composed of:
Chinese: 32%, including the Peranakan (Baba Nyonya) community;
Indians, including the Chitty people: a sizeable minority;
Kristang, people with partial Portuguese ancestry: a small community;
Dutch Eurasians, Eurasians with Dutch ancestry: a minority within the Malacca Eurasian community.
Major Malacca towns are Malacca Town, Alor Gajah, Masjid Tanah, Jasin, Merlimau, Batu Berendam and Ayer Keroh.
Replica of Melaka Sultanate Palace
Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a simple fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca c. 1400 where he found a good port accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.
Established by the Malay ruler Parameswara, the Sultanate of Malacca was first a Hindu Kingdom in 1402 and later converted to Islam with the marriage of the princess of Pasai in 1409. Centered in the modern town of Malacca, the sultanate stretched from Muslim Malay settlements of Phuket Province, Satun, Pattani bordering the Ayutthaya Kingdom of Siam (Thailand) in the north to Sumatra in the southwest. The Portuguese invaded its capital in 1511 and in 1528. In the aftermath the Sultanate of Johor was established by the Malaccan prince Alauddin Riayat Shah II as a successor state.
According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a gray tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on the very place that he was sitting. He named it 'Melaka' after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name 'Malacca' from the Tamil word 'mallakka' which means upside down or on ones back.
Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration. In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut) the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.
Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara, occurred in the vicinity of the Bukit China ("Chinese Hill") area, which was perceived as having excellent Feng Shui (geomancy) in Malacca then. Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424. He was buried on Bukit Larangan (now Fort Canning Hill in Singapore) and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.
The prosperity of Malacca attracted the invasion of the Siamese. Attempts in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was then a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks.
Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He's fleet.
To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, allegedly a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina).(See Zheng He in Malacca). Scholars have disputed Hang Li Po's status in China as because she was never recorded as a princess in the Chinese court of the Ming Dynasty in the Ming Chronicles. At the time of the arrival of the Sultan's envoy, the reigning Ming Emperor was Jingtai Emperor.
Records of his reign was expunged following the ascension of Tianshun in 1457. It is likely that if she were a princess in the Ming court, records of her might not exist. In many historical text, she was said to have been a princess in the court of the Yongle Emperor(1402–1424).
A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.
During its prime, Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai's southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca was rising. Malacca was also central in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.
Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara founded Malacca around 1400. According to Sejarah Melayu, he was the last king of Singapura and a member of the royal family of Srivijaya. He laid claims of being descended from Iskandar Zulkarnain.
In 1299, a Srivijayan prince, Sang Nila Utama removed himself from Bentan to Temasek where he founded Singapura. He maintained control over the island for 48 years and was recognized as a ruler by an envoy of the Chinese Emperor in 1366. He was officially styled Sri Maharaja Sang Utama Parameswara Batara Sri Tri Buana (meaning: "Lord Central King Batara of "Sri Tri Buana" or 'Three world Realm'"), signifying his lordship over Palembang, Bentan and Singapura. Three other rulers succeeded the throne later, Sri Tri Buana's son, Paduka Sri Pekerma Wira Diraja (1372–1386), his grandson Paduka Seri Rana Wira Kerma (1386–1399) and his great grandson Paduka Sri Maharaja Parameswara (1399–1413).
In 1390s, Majapahit sent thousands of ships to attack the remaining Malay realm of Srivijaya including Singapura. In collusion with the Bendahara Sang Rajuna Tapa, Majapahit managed to conquer Singapura in 1401 and expelled Parameswara.
Parameswara fled north to Muar, Ujong Tanah and Biawak Busuk before founding Melaka in 1402. In 1409, Parameswara assumed the title Sultan Iskandar Shah due to his marriage to a princess from Pasai. His marriage to the Muslim princess encouraged a number of his subjects to embrace Islam. According to the Sejarah Melayu, legend has it that the king saw a mouse deer outwit a dog when he was resting under the Melaka tree. He took what he saw as a good omen and decided to establish a capital for his kingdom there. Today, the mouse deer is part of modern Malacca's coat of arms.
At the foundation of Malacca, the native peoples were virtually all Hindu. According to the Malay chronicle Sejarah Melayu, Parameswara dreamt that Mohammed came to him, proclaiming the Islamic creed. Afterwards, Parameswara dreamt again, this time of a Meccan man named Sayyid Abu Al-Hassan who lectured him about Islam; later, the same Meccan came and performed his Asar (evening) prayer. Convinced, Parameswara adopted an Islamic name, Sultan Iskandar Shah, and the new religion spread quickly throughout his realm.
After Parameswara, his successor to the Malacca sultanate was Sultan Ahmad Shah. He was responsible for building the empire with the help of Orang Laut (Seaman), Orang Asli (Natives) and the Malays. The Malaccan Empire had turned from a maritime empire into an entrepôt empire. Other Eastern civilizations such as the Chinese Empire and the Siamese and Western civilizations such as Gujerat, Arabs and Europeans traded with Malacca. One statement said that:
"Seluruh pedagang di atas angin dan di bawah angin datang ke Melaka. Semua bandarnya ketika itu, penuh dengan orang-orang"
"All tradeers from the West and the Orient came to Malacca. The whole city at that time, full of people."Parameswara remained a hindu upon his death,even his son Dewa Parameswara Shah, Islam came later thru Hang Kasturi
|Sultan of Malacca||Reign|
(aka Iskandar Shah)
|Megat Iskandar Shah||1414–1424|
|Alauddin Riayat Shah||1477–1488|
Malacca had a well-defined government with a set of laws. On top of the sultanate's hierarchy sat the sultan and he was an absolute monarch. Below him was a bendahara, a position similar to that of a prime ministersultan and it was the highest ranking officer that could be held by any common people. After bendahara, a laksamana's authority is paramount. A laksamana is an admiral and was responsible for the state and the sultan's security.
He commanded the army. Later comes the temenggung which more or less a chief of public police. At the bottom of this nobility structure are penghulu bendahari, who was the treasurer of the state and the shahbandars of whom were responsible to matters of trade and ports.
The most famous Malaccan bendahara is Tun Perak. Under his advice, he managed to expand Malacca to its greatest extent. Hang Tuah is an example of Malaccan laksamana.
The sultanate was governed with several set of laws. The formal legal text of traditional Melaka consisted of the Undang-Undang Melaka (Laws of Malacca), variously called the Hukum Kanun Melaka and Risalat Hukum Kanun, and the Undang-Undang Laut Melaka (the Maritime Laws of Malacca). The laws as written in the legal digests went through an evolutionary process. The legal rules that eventually evolved were shaped by three main influences, namely the early non-indigenous Hindu/Buddhist tradition, Islam and the indigenous "adat".
Factors for growth
The Sultanate thrived on entrepôt trade and became the most important port in Southeast Asia during the 15th and the early 16th century. Furthermore, Malacca was as a major player in the spice trade, serving as a gateway between the Spice Islands and high-paying Eurasian markets. This is reflected by the Portuguese Tomé Pires who claimed "Whoever is lord of Malacca has his hand on the throat of Venice".
One of the factors that contributed to the rise of Malacca was the monsoon winds that enabled Arab and Indian traders from the west to travel to China in the east and vice versa. At the height of its power, the Sultanate encompassed most of modern day Peninsular Malaysia, the site of modern day Singapore and a great portion of eastern Sumatra. It was also the center of Islam in the eastern sphere, where imams and ustazes came to discuss religion and the like. Muslim missionaries were also sent by the Sultan to spread Islam to other communities in the Malay Archipelago, such as in Java, Borneo, and the Philippines. Most of South East Asia at that time was Hindu.
The Sultanate's most important regional rivals were Siam in the north and the declining Majapahit Empire in the south. Majapahit was not able to control or effectively compete with Malacca within the archipelago, and came to an end during the later 15th century. Siam on the other hand attacked Malacca three times, but all attacks were repelled.
At the same time, Malacca had a good relationship with Ming, resulting in Zheng He's visits. Parameswara had met the Ming emperor to receive a Letter of Friendship, hence making Malacca the first foreign kingdom to attain such treatment. In 1409, the sultan paid tribute to the Ming emperor to ask for protection against Siam and Malacca was made as protectorate of Ming China. Moreover, one of the sultans, Mansur Shah even married a Ming princess named Hang Li Po. This Sino-Malacca relationship helped deter Siam from further threatening Malacca.(See Zheng He In Malacca.)
In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships. They conquered the city on August 24, 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese.
In the meantime the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). "In order to appease the King of Ayudhya" (Siam, whom had always intended in invading Malacca if not due to the latter's good relationship with the Ming Emperor, China) "the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi." in 1511. Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmaud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died five years later.
It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not mean they now controlled Asian trade that centred around it. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties. Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had fundamentally disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth exchange had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.
The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641 the Dutch defeated the Portuguese to capture Malacca with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) in Indonesia as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.
Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia.
Malacca is administered by its State Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.
The Chief Minister's Department is the administrative pillar of the State Government, and is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister's office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes,
Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:
Malacca Central District & Land Office
Alor Gajah District & Land Office
Jasin District & Land Office
These offices render various services and facilities to the people in their daily lives.
The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, "Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia" ("Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia"). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.
Malacca is home to several modern shopping complexes to attract more visitors to the state. Examples include Mahkota Parade Shopping Centre at Plaza Mahkota (City Centre), Dataran Pahlawan Melaka Megamall (which is situated on the historical field of Padang Pahlawan, where Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al Haj announced the independence day of the Federation Of Malaya), Melaka Mall Shopping Complex (formerly known as Kotamas Shopping Complexe), A'Famosa Safari and Theme Park and Plaza Melaka Raya at the Taman Melaka Raya.
Malacca also has its very own hypermarket and departmental store. A few examples include Parkson Departmental Store (Mahkota Parade and Melaka Mall), Jusco Supermarket and Departmental Store (Ayer Keroh and Bandaraya Melaka), Tesco Hypermarket (Melaka Sentral) and Giant Hypermarket at Bachang Utama; also a Supermarket at (Mahkota Parade).
Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech weaponry and automotive components to electronic and computer parts. There are at least 23 industrial estates that houses some 500 factories from the United States, Germany, Japan, Taiwan, and Singapore.
Malacca has given birth to numerous successful Malaysians who have achieved immense success in Malaysia and abroad.
The state is much sought after for medical education with the establishment of the Melaka Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997.
The state also has a twin campus of Multimedia University The university is located in Bukit Beruang. The campus currently attracts many foreign students, especially from the Middle East and Africa, through its computer and engineering programmes. The university also features degree programmes in fields like robotics, bio-instrumentation and law. Most of the student population of Multimedia University is drawn from its foundation programmes, also known as the Alpha Programmes.
Malacca also has several public universities and colleges such as:
Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) in Lendu,
Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka, UTeM (previously known as Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia, KUTKM) located in Ayer Keroh,
Kolej Yayasan Melaka (KYM),
Kolej Teknolgi Yayasan Alor Gajah(KTYAGA) located at Alor Gajah,
Kolej Universiti Islam Melaka (KUIM).
Malacca has its own boarding school called Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The intake of students to this school is based on the Ministry of Education of Malaysia which enrole students based oh their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Penilaian Menengah Rendah(PMR). Usually students with great achievement will be chosen to enter this school. Students normally come from Malacca itself, Negeri Sembilan, Johor or from the Klang Valley.
A center for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School, is also situated in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed to School of Henry Gurney at 15 May 1950. This center runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile criminals in which they are exposed to living skills such as sewing, cooking and vocational skills such as learning mechanical repairing.
Malacca has also one international school called Melaka International School or in short MIS. It commenced in 1993 to cater to the expatriate population of the state of Malacca.
Mahkota Medical Centre
Hospitals in Malacca state are listed below:
a. Government Hospitals:
Malacca General Hospital
Jasin District Hospital
Alor Gajah District Hospital
Currently, both these government hospitals serve as teaching hospitals for Melaka Manipal Medical College.
Putra Specialist Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
Pantai Ayer Keroh
Mahkota Medical Centre
District and Local Authority
Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah
Malacca is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authority:
1. Central Malacca: Malacca Town- Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah, Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
2. Alor Gajah: Alor Gajah- Majlis Perbandaran Alor Gajah, Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
3. Jasin District: Jasin - Majlis Perbandaran Jasin, Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
The historic centre of Malacca was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Town, the capital of Penang.
The Malays who are the original settlers of Malacca since 1400, form the largest community. The Malaccan Malays are rich in culture from their daily life to the building arts. The famous Malacca Steps or Tangga Melaka are common in front of many Malay houses in Malacca.
Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum.
Malacca is well-known for its food. Most notable of all is the traditional Malay dishes like ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.
Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh tiny shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay. These are mashed into a paste and dried in little mashed lumps, pounded and formed into large balls, dried again for a week or so, wrapped in plastic and stored for future use. It is in this form that most of these blachan balls are sold. Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes, or eaten on its own with rice. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing belacan with chili peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and then fried.
The aroma from the frying mixture can be unpalatable to Westerners who have not become accustomed to it, but is an absolute delight to the Asian connoisseur.
Malacca is also famous for satay celup. Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce. The satay celup is often self-service where you pay for individual sticks.
There is also Nyonya-Baba cuisine which is a mixture of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Interesting dishes of the Peranakan include Itik Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce which is usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.
Malacca's ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the ancient traditions passed down since the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. "Intrudu" from Portuguese word "Entrudo" (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), "branyu" (traditional dance), "Santa Cruz" (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).
The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil's Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town's already rich cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.
There is also a sizeable amount of Sikhs residing in Malacca. Devotees of Sikhism from all over Malaysia and the world congregate each year at the well-maintained gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong during the last weekend of May.
The occasion marks the commemoration of the death of its former priest, Sant Baba Sohan Singh Ji, who was elevated to a saint upon passing away. Visitors are welcome but are advised to follow rules and common practices within the premises. Typical vegetarian punjabi cuisine will be served to everyone visiting the gurdwara.
Pulau Sebang at Alor Gajah district, a town 30 km north of Malacca town, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but were dismantled by the Japanese during the war for the construction of the infamous Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war though traces of the line remain.
Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral which has air-conditioned waiting areas and separate areas for buses plying the town routes and for buses plying the intertown routes with regular bus services to Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, Johor Bahru, and other places in Malaysia. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy. It is now refurbished into a brand new international airport for the state of Melaka.
Malacca International Airport
The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits
Popular Historical Attractions
Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
St. John's Fort
St. John's Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inwards towards the mainland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
St. Peter's Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
St. Paul's Church
St. Paul's Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named "Our Lady of The Hill", but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed "St. Paul's Church". Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of "The Last Supper".
St. Francis Xavier Church
St. Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the "Apostle of the East". St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
Stadthuys: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the "Museum of History and Ethnography". The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
Cheng Hoon Teng Temple
Cheng Hoon Teng Temple: Located along Jalan Tokong (formerly Temple Street) in the core zone of the Malacca Unesco World Heritage Site. It is the oldest functioning temple in Malaysia and grandest temple in Malacca.
Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is famous for its antique goods. It is also famous for its carnival-like atmosphere during weekend nights.
Portuguese Square: Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
Tranquerah Mosque: One of the oldest mosque in Malacca.
In order to attract more tourists to Malacca, the State government has built a number of museums to house its rich cultural heritage.
The museums and gallery of Malacca are:
A. History And Ethnography Museum Complex
1. Muzium Sejarah dan Ethnografi
2. Muzium Sastera
3. Muzium Pendidikan Melaka
4. Muzium Yang di-Pertua Negeri Melaka
5. Muzium Pemerintahan Demokrasi
6. Galeri Laksamana Cheng Ho
7. Muzium Belia Malaysia
8. Galeri Seni PERZIM
9. Galeri Seni Rakyat
B. Maritime Museum Complex
10. Muzium Samudera Fasa I- Replika Flor de La Mar)
11. Muzium Samudera Fasa II
12. Muzium TLDM
13. Kapal Ex-KD Sri Terengganu
14. Muzium Al-Quran Melaka
15. Muzium Chetti
16. Muzium Pengangkutan
17. Muzium Pulau Besar
C. Peoples Museum Complex
18. Muzium Rakyat
19. Muzium Kecantikan
20. Galeri Layang-Layang
21. Galeri Tan Sri Datuk Wira Aziz bin Tapa
22. Galeri Datuk Wira Borhan bin Md. Yaman
23. Galeri 3D
24. Muzium Setem Melaka
25. Muzium Islam Melaka
26. Galeri Ketua Menteri Melaka
27. Galeri Melaka
D. Melaka Sultanate Museum Complex
28. Istana Kesultanan Melaka
29. Muzium Dunia Melayu Dunia Islam (Galeri Sawahlunto)
30. Muzium Orang Asli, Ayer Keroh
31. Muzium Adat Istiadat, Alor Gajah
32. Muzium Pertanian, Jasin
E. Malacca's Gallery (Indonesia)
33. Galeri Melaka Sawahlunto
34. Galeri Melaka Jambi
35. Galeri Melaka Palembang
36. Galeri Melaka Pekan Baru
F. Others (Private and Government-owned Museum / Gallery)
37. Muzium Belia
38. Muzium Baba dan Nyonya
39. Muzium Lebah Sedunia
40. Muzium Rumahku Muziumku
41. Muzium Budaya Cheng Ho
42. Memorial Pengisytiharan Kemerdekaan
43. Galeri Tun Ghafar Baba